Table of Contents
- 1 How many auto injectors does atropine and 2 Pam chloride have?
- 2 What is treatment for nerve agent poisoning?
- 3 What are the symptoms of nerve agent exposure?
- 4 What is in a nerve agent antidote kit?
- 5 What are the long term effects of a nerve agent?
- 6 Which types of burns require immediate attention due to location?
How many auto injectors does atropine and 2 Pam chloride have?
If severe signs and symptoms are present, three (3) Atropine auto-injectors and three (3) 2-PAM CL injectors should be administered in rapid succession.
What are the two preferred sites to inject the nerve agent antidote?
Injection site selection:
- The most common injection site of administration is the OUTER THIGH MUSCLE.
- For thinly built individuals, the injection should be given in the UPPER OUTER QUADRANT OF THE BUTTOCKS.
What is treatment for nerve agent poisoning?
Nerve agent poisoning can be treated with the antidotes atropine and pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM chloride). Atropine has anticholinergic properties that are particularly effective at peripheral muscarinic sites, but are less effective at nicotinic sites.
How often should Atnaa treatment be administered?
More than one dose of ATNAA, to a maximum of three doses, may be necessary, especially when exposure is massive or symptoms are severe (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
What are the symptoms of nerve agent exposure?
Regardless of the route of exposure, nerve agents can cause the following characteristic effects:
- pinpoint pupils of the eye.
- excessive production of mucous, tears, saliva and sweat.
- stomach pain, nausea and vomiting.
- chest tightness and shortness of breath.
- loss of bladder and bowel control.
- muscle twitching.
When would you use a DuoDote auto injector?
DuoDote® should be administered as soon as symptoms of organophosphorous poisoning appear. The DuoDote® Auto-Injector is intended as an initial treatment of the symptoms of organophosphorous insecticide or nerve agent poisonings; definitive medical care should be sought immediately.
What is in a nerve agent antidote kit?
In the United States military, the Mark I NAAK, or MARK I Kit, (“Nerve Agent Antidote Kit”) is a dual-chamber autoinjector: Two anti-nerve agent drugs—atropine sulfate and pralidoxime chloride—each in injectable form, constitute the kit.
How quickly does nerve agent work?
Symptoms will appear within a few seconds after exposure to the vapor form of VX, and within a few minutes to up to 18 hours after exposure to the liquid form. VX is the most potent of all nerve agents.
What are the long term effects of a nerve agent?
Individuals who are exposed to high levels of sarin (for example, levels that results in acute symptoms) may experience long term neurological side effects. These include headaches, fatigue, visual disturbances, memory difficulties, and symptoms of PTSD.
What position should you immediately place a casualty?
Any unconscious casualty (even with a suspected spinal injury) should be positioned onto their side because, quite simply, if you don’t have an airway, you don’t have a casualty.
Which types of burns require immediate attention due to location?
Third-degree burns are much more significant and always require urgent attention. These burns affect the first and second layers of the skin, as well as the underlying fatty tissue. Patients should be aware that third-degree burns may look charred or leathery, with brown, white, or red skin.
What is the most powerful nerve agent?
VX is the most potent of all nerve agents. Compared with the nerve agent sarin (also known as GB), VX is considered to be much more toxic by entry through the skin and somewhat more toxic by inhalation. It is possible that any visible VX liquid contact on the skin, unless washed off immediately, would be lethal.